550 Earth Sciences & Geology

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550 Earth Sciences & Geology

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This open access book originates from an international workshop organized by Turkish Natural Catastrophe Insurance Pool (TCIP) in November 2019 that gathered renown researchers from academia, representatives of leading international reinsurance and…

Addressing the Climate Crisis
This open access book brings together a collection of cutting-edge insights into how action can and is already being taken against climate change at multiple levels of our societies, amidst growing calls for transformative and inclusive climate…

Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals
This open access book is designed as a continuation of the editor’s 2019 book Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals. This volume provides an in-depth analysis of industry sectors globally, and its purpose is to present emission reduction…

Integrating Data Science and Earth Science
This open access book presents the results of three years collaboration between earth scientists and data scientist, in developing and applying data science methods for scientific discovery. The book will be highly beneficial for other researchers at…

This open access book originates from an international workshop organized by Turkish Natural Catastrophe Insurance Pool (TCIP) in November 2019 that gathered renown researchers from academia, representatives of leading international reinsurance and…

Addressing the Climate Crisis
This open access book brings together a collection of cutting-edge insights into how action can and is already being taken against climate change at multiple levels of our societies, amidst growing calls for transformative and inclusive climate…

A Visual Atlas for Soil Micromorphologists
This open access atlas is an up-to-date visual resource on the features and structures observed in soil thin sections, i.e. soil micromorphology. The book addresses the growing interest in soil micromorphology in the fields of soil science, earth…

Geology Online Lab Activities: An Open Educational Resource for Community College Students and Instructors
The online geology lab for community college students was developed by Dr. Rondi Davies, a faculty member at Queensborough Community College, City University New York, during two years of forced online synchronous learning brought on by the COVID-19…

Elementary Earth and Space Science Methods
this book to help you as both a college student and a future teacher. Dr. Ted Neal asked us to help him create this resource from the perspective of students who have taken Science Methods II–what would we want in a textbook for this course? With…

Negotiating Climate Change in Crisis
Climate change negotiations have failed the world. Despite more than thirty years of high-level, global talks on climate change, we are still seeing carbon emissions rise dramatically. This edited volume, comprising leading and emerging scholars and…

Coastal Dynamics
Coastal Dynamics focuses on the interrelation between physical wave, flow and sediment transport phenomena and the resulting morphodynamics of a wide variety of coastal systems. The textbook is unique in that it explicitly connects the dynamics of…

Marine Ecology Notes
This books is a general introduction to Marine Ecology, accompanying a lecture and excursion. It targets students without prior knowledge of the subject. The content is taken largely from Wikipedia, but curated and augmented by the authors.

Biodiversity and Health in the Face of Climate Change
This open access book identifies and discusses biodiversity’s contribution to physical, mental and spiritual health and wellbeing. Furthermore, the book identifies the implications of this relationship for nature conservation, public health,…

The Beauty of Geology: Art of Geology Mapping in China Over a Century
This open access book contains a collection of rare geologic maps and figures made by Chinese geologists in the last century. Preserved in National Geological Archives of China, these artworks demonstrate the development and innovation of geological…

Agroecological Transitions: From Theory to Practice in Local Participatory Design
This Open Access book presents feedback from the ‘Territorial Agroecological Transition in Action’- TATA-BOX research project, which was devoted to these specific issues. The multidisciplinary and multi-organisation research team steered a four-year…

This reader is an Open Educational Resource, meant to accompany a graduate or higher-level undergraduate university course in climate change resilience, adaptation, and/or planning. While the material is geared toward students in urban and regional…

Geological Structures: a Practical Introduction
This manual is about structures that occur within the Earth’s crust. Structures are the features that allow geologists to figure out how parts of the Earth have changed position, orientation, size and shape over time. This work requires careful…

Permaculture Design: Tools for Climate Resilience
Climate is also where we begin the design process in another tool referenced in the Permaculture design system. This is the Scale of Landscape Permanence, originated by P.A.Yeomans, the founder of Keyline™ Design. Yeomans asserts that the order of…

Hydrological extremes have become a major concern because of their devastating consequences and their increased risk as a result of climate change and the growing concentration of people and infrastructure in high-risk zones. The analysis of…

The interface of 440,000 km long coastline in the world is subject to global change, with an increasing human pressure (land use, buildings, sand mining, dredging) and increasing population. Improving our knowledge on involved mechanisms and sediment…

Changes in sea surface roughness are usually associated with a change in the sea surface wind field. This interaction has been exploited to measure sea surface wind speed by scatterometry. A number of features on the sea surface associated with…

Satellite altimetry is a radar technique for measuring the topography of the Earth’s surface. It was initially designed for measuring the ocean’s topography, with reference to an ellipsoid, and for the determination of the marine geoid. Satellite…

Investigations of Angular Light Scattering by Complex Atmospheric Particles
This book experimentally investigates the angular light scattering properties of three atmospherically relevant particles: ice crystals, dust particles and secondary organic aerosol particles. Key optical quantities under examination are the…

Marine Natural Products and Obesity
Obesity and related co-morbidities are increasing worldwide and pose a serious health problem. Changes in lifestyle and diet would be the best remedies to fight obesity; however, many people will still rely on medical aid. Marine organisms have been…

Hydrological Hazard: Analysis and Prevention
Due to the considerable impacts of hydrological hazards on water resources, natural environments, and human activities, as well as on human health and safety, climate variability and climate change have become key issues for the research community.…

Advanced Glasses, Composites and Ceramics for High Growth Industries
Advanced Glasses, Composites and Ceramics for High-Growth Industries (CoACH) was a European Training Network (ETN) project (http://www.coach-etn.eu/) funded by the Horizon 2020 program. CoACH involved multiple actors in the innovation ecosystem for…

Observations and Theory of Short GRBs at the Dawn of the Gravitational Wave Era
The book starts with a review of the established facts on the numerical simulations of binary neutron star mergers and simulations of short GRB jets that highlights the issues that need to be revised and further clarified, as the need to understand…

Emerging Advances in Petrophysics. Porous Media Characterization and Modeling of Multiphase Flow
Due to the influence of pore-throat size distribution, pore connectivity, and microscale fractures, the transport, distribution, and residual saturation of fluids in porous media are difficult to characterize. Petrophysical methods in natural porous…

Wetlands and Water Framework Directive
This book compares the lessons learned from a wetland-perspective approach to the changing climate and the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) with regard to environmental conservation. Examples from Germany and Poland are discussed…

Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin
This book is an update of the first BACC assessment, published in 2008. It offers new and updated scientific findings in regional climate research for the Baltic Sea basin. These include climate changes since the last glaciation (approx. 12,000 years…

Diversity and Evolution of Butterfly Wing Patterns: An Integrative Approach
This book facilitates an integrative understanding of the development, genetics and evolution of butterfly wing patterns. To develop a deep and realistic understanding of the diversity and evolution of butterfly wing patterns, it is essential and…

Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy
This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering…

Ship and Offshore Structure Design in Climate Change Perspective
This book summarizes results of longstanding research and scientific contributions from many projects and relevant working groups. It collects and evaluates wind and wave climate projections under changing climate having design needs and marine…

Criticality of the Rare Earth Elements: Current and Future Sources and Recycling
Rare earth elements (REE) are critical to our modern way of life, although potential primary and secondary sources of these elements and the economics of the REE sector remain somewhat poorly understood. This Special Issue focuses on furthering our…

Enhancing Soil Health to Mitigate Soil Degradation
Five of the top ten problems facing humanity (http://cnst.rice.edu/content.aspx?id=246) over the next 50 years (food, water, energy, environment and poverty) are directly related to the health of soil resources. Several different factors, including:…

Paris Climate Agreement: Beacon of Hope
This volume presents an Empirical Model of Global Climate developed by the authors and uses that model to show that global warming will likely remain below 2ºC, relative to preindustrial, throughout this century provided: a) both the unconditional…

Plant Selection for Bioretention Systems and Stormwater Treatment Practices
As cities develop, more land is converted into impervious surfaces, which do not allow water to infiltrate. Careful urban planning is needed to ensure that the hydrologic cycle and water quality of the catchment areas are not affected. There are…

Observing Geohazards from Space
With a wide spectrum of imaging capabilities, Earth observation offers several opportunities for the geoscience community to map and monitor natural and human-induced Earth hazards from space. The objective of this book is to collect scientific…

Mineral Surface Reactions at the Nanoscale
Reactions at mineral surfaces are central to all geochemical processes. As minerals comprise the rocks of the Earth, the processes occurring at the mineral–aqueous fluid interface control the evolution of the rocks and hence the structure of the…

Computing Characterizations of Drugs for Ion Channels and Receptors Using Markov Models
Flow of ions through voltage gated channels can be represented theoretically using stochastic differential equations where the gating mechanism is represented by a Markov model. The flow through a channel can be manipulated using various drugs, and…

Subseafloor Biosphere Linked to Hydrothermal Systems: TAIGA Concept
his book is the comprehensive volume of the TAIGA (“a great river ” in Japanese) project. Supported by the Japanese government, the project examined the hypothesis that the subseafloor fluid advection system (subseafloor TAIGA) can be categorized…

Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry of Precious Metals
Precious metals continue to have economic and sociocultural importance, as their usage evolves and diversifies over time. Today, the industrial application of precious metals is increasing with the development of scientific and technological…

Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry of Precious Metals
Precious metals continue to have economic and sociocultural importance, as their usage evolves and diversifies over time. Today, the industrial application of precious metals is increasing with the development of scientific and technological…

Environmental Leadership Capacity Building in Higher Education: Experience and Lessons from Asian Program for Incubation of Environmental Leaders
he Graduate Program in Sustainability Science under the Department of Urban Engineering of The University of Tokyo has been running an environmental leadership education program at the graduate student level since 2007 called the Asian Program for…

Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy
This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering…

Criticality of the Rare Earth Elements: Current and Future Sources and Recycling
Rare earth elements (REE) are critical to our modern way of life, although potential primary and secondary sources of these elements and the economics of the REE sector remain somewhat poorly understood. This Special Issue focuses on furthering our…

Magnetic Records of Extreme Geological Events
Recent advances in environmental magnetism offer the opportunity to link the magnetic signature of marine and continental rocks to the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic settings that controlled their formation or deposition, as well as to…

Progress in Ecological Stoichiometry
Ecological stoichiometry concerns the way that the elemental composition of organisms shapes their ecology. It deals with balance and imbalanced elemental ratios and how that affects organism growth, nutrient cycling, and the interactions with the…

Causes and Consequences of Species Diversity in Forest Ecosystems
What are the causes and consequences of species diversity in forested ecosystems, and how is this species diversity being affected by rapid environmental and climatic change, movement of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores into new biogeographic…

Astronomy for Educators
Astronomy for Educators provides new and accomplished K-12 instructors with concepts and projects for low-cost, high-impact STEM classroom instruction that is built around the National Academies National Research Council's K-12 Framework for Science…

Life on Earth was punctuated by several dramatic paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic changes leading to mass extinction linked to continental flood basalts (CFBs) and large igneous provinces (LIPs), global oceanic anoxic events (OAE), rapid climate…

Nitrification in Fixed Bed Reactors Treating Saline Wastewater
Two fixed bed reactors for nitrification with either polyethylene/clay sinter lamellas (FBR A) or porous ceramic rings (FBR B) were continously run for treating synthetic saline wastewater. Seawater from Hafen Büsum was used as an inoculums. The…

Demystifying Climate Models: A Users Guide to Earth System Models
The book series Earth Systems Data and Models publishes state-of-the-art research and technologies aimed at understanding processes and interactions in the earth system. A special emphasis is given to theory, methods, and tools used in earth,…

Well seismic surveying and acoustic logging
In the geophysics of oil exploration and reservoir studies, the seismic method is the most commonly used method to obtain a subsurface model. This method plays an increasingly important role in soil investigations for geotechnical, hydrogeological…

Seismic Imaging. A practical approach
In the geophysics of oil exploration and reservoir studies, the surface seismic method is the most commonly used method to obtain a subsurface model in 2 or 3 dimensions. This method plays an increasingly important role in soil investigations…

Earth's climate response to a changing Sun
The Earth’s atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that surrounds our planet, consists of a mixture of gases, extending from the surface of the Earth to the edge of
space and tied to the Earth mainly by its gravitational force, and partly by the…

Introduction to Oceanography
There are many reasons why people study oceanography. An understanding of ocean processes is obviously vital to oceanographers, marine biologists, or environmental scientists. However, there are numerous other scientific fields where the oceans play…

Virtuous Waters : Mineral Springs, Bathing, and Infrastructure in Mexico<br /><br />
Virtuous Waters is a pathbreaking and innovative study of bathing, drinking and other everyday engagements with a wide range of waters across five centuries in Mexico. Casey Walsh uses political ecology to bring together an analysis of shifting…

Mountain, Water, Rock, God . Understanding Kedarnath in the Twenty-First Century
In Mountain, Water, Rock, God, Luke Whitmore situates the disastrous flooding that fell on the Hindu Himalayan shrine of Kedarnath in 2013 within a broader religious and ecological context. Whitmore explores the longer story of this powerful realm of…

Slurry Transport: Fundamentals, A Historical Overview &amp; The Delft Head Loss &amp; Limit Deposit Velocity Framework 2nd Edition
In dredging, the hydraulic transport of solids is one of the most important processes. Since the 50’s many researchers have tried to create a physical mathematical model in order to predict the head losses in slurry transport. One can think of the…

World Regional Geography: People, Places and Globalization
World Regional Geography: People, Places and Globalization is designed for students to experience and study as much of the world as possible within a limited amount of time. It gives students the fundamental concepts and the latest data regarding…

Laboratory Manual for Introductory Geology
The average introductory geology student’s perception of geology normally involves the memorization of rocks and discussions of natural disasters, but Geology contains so much more. Geology is the study of our planet, which is vital to our everyday…

The Environment in the Age of the Internet

"How do we talk about the environment? Does this communication reveal and construct meaning? Is the environment expressed and foregrounded in the new landscape of digital media? The Environment in the Age of the Internet is an interdisciplinary…

Living with Earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest
In this expanded new edition of Living with Earthquakes, Robert Yeats, a leading authority on earthquakes in California and the Pacific Northwest, describes the threat posed by the Cascadia Subduction Zone, a great earthquake fault which runs for…

Ester Boserup’s Legacy on Sustainability : Orientations for Contemporary Research
Arising from a scientific conference marking the 100th anniversary of her birth, this book honors the life and work of the social scientist and diplomat Ester Boserup, who blazed new trails in her interdisciplinary approach to development and…

Arcticness

Climate change and globalisation are opening up the Arctic for exploitation by the world – or so we are told. But what about the views, interests and needs of the peoples who live in the region? This volume explores the opportunities and…

Rivers of the Anthropocene<br /><br />
This exciting volume presents the work and research of the Rivers of the Anthropocene Network, an international collaborative group of scientists, social scientists, humanists, artists, policymakers, and community organizers working to produce…

Introduction to Physical Oceanography
This textbook covers physical-oceanographic processes, theories, data, and measurements, targeted at upper-division undergraduates and graduate students in oceanography, meteorology, and ocean engineering. In addition to the classical topics, the…

Evaluating Climate Change Action for Sustainable Development
This authoritative book presents the ever progressing state of the art in evaluating climate change strategies and action. It builds upon a selection of relevant and practical papers and presentations given at the 2nd International Conference on…

Essential of Geographic Information Systems


Essentials of Geographic Information Systems integrates key concepts behind the technology with practical concerns and real-world applications. Recognizing that many potential GIS users are nonspecialists or may only need a few maps, this book is…

Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Nuclear Risks
This book covers seismic probabilistic risk assessment (S-PRA) and related studies which have become more important to increase the safety of nuclear facilities against earthquakes and tsunamis in the face of the many uncertainties after the…

Earth Observation Open Science and Innovation
Over the past decades, rapid developments in digital and sensing technologies, such as the Cloud, Web and Internet of Things, have dramatically changed the way we live and work. The digital transformation is revolutionizing our ability to…

The Global Encyclopaedia of Informality Volume II
This book invites you on a voyage of discovery, to explore society’s open secrets, to comprehend unwritten rules and to uncover informal practices. Broadly defined as ‘ways
of getting things done’, these informal yet powerful
practices tend to…

The Global Encyclopaedia of Informality Volume I
This book invites you on a voyage of discovery, to explore society’s open secrets, to comprehend unwritten rules and to uncover informal practices. Broadly defined as ‘ways
of getting things done’, these informal yet powerful
practices tend to…

Thinking Beyond Sectors for Sustainable Development
As we move from the era of the Millennium Development Goals to the Sustainable Development Goals it is important to consider how development agendas
are set, the progress that has been made over the past
15 years, and how current debates are…

Weather &amp; Climate Services for the Energy Industry
This chapter discusses the information gaps relating to the type, level of accuracy and frequency of delivery of specific weather and climate information, and what extra information is required by the energy sector in the coming years. It is argued…

Identifying Minerals
An overview of the tests that can help you to identify a mineral sample

Input by : Elvira Nadya Saleh

A Brief Introduction to Minerals.
What is a mineral?

Input by : Dian Islamiati
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